Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic, is the most common cause of corneal verticillata, followed by chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, indomethacin, and phenothiazines. A comprehensive list of systemic drugs associated with corneal verticillata is given in . Retinal toxicity dosage hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine sulfate online Chloroquine intercalating Toxicity from hydroxychloroquine may be seen in two distinct areas of the eye the cornea and the macula. The cornea may become affected relatively commonly by an innocuous cornea verticillata or vortex keratopathy and is characterized by whorl-like corneal epithelial deposits. These changes bear no relationship to dosage and are usually reversible on cessation of hydroxychloroquine. Corneal verticillata, or vortex keratopathy, manifests as a whorl-like pattern of golden brown or gray deposits in the inferior interpalpebal portion of the cornea in a clockwise fashion Fig 12-15. A variety of medications bind with the cellular lipids of the basal epithelial layer of the cornea due to their cationic. Hydroxychloroquine Keratopathy - Example #1 Hydroxychloroquine rarely can be seen as deposits in the basal epithelium of the cornea as shown in this image white arrows. This occurs commonly in patients taking chloroquine, but rarely in patients taking hydroxychloroquine. The deposits typically resolve with discontinuation of the responsible agents. It is unusual for these deposits to result in reduction of visual acuity or ocular symptoms, although this has occurred in some patients. Hydroxychloroquine keratopathy Cornea verticillata - Wikipedia, Corneal verticillata - American Academy of Ophthalmology Michael marmor plaquenil dosage Medications of the chloroquine family, including chloroquine Nivaquine, Avloclor, hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil, and amodiaquine, have been associated with keratopathy Srinivasan et al. 2011. Quinolone antimalarial drugs are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria as well as in the treatment of certain rheumatological disorders e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile chronic. Chloroquine Toxicity, Cornea Verticillata SpringerLink. Hydroxychloroquine Keratopathy - Example #1 - The Retina.. Systemic Medications that have Ocular. - Dr. Farah Lakhani. Hydroxychloroquine is generally a safe treatment with occasional mild nausea, cramps and mild diarrhea. To prevent reversible keratopathy, corneal exams twice yearly are recommended. Maculopathy is rare but should be screened for with biannual retinal examinations. REFERENCES. 1. Hydroxychloroquine is a quinoline medicine used to treat or prevent malaria, a disease caused by parasites that enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Malaria is common in areas such as Africa, South America, and Southern Asia. This medicine is not effective against all strains of malaria. These deposits occur in various levels of the cornea. Corneal verticillata, also called vortex keratopathy, are one type of corneal deposits. Verticillata are readily recognizable by their distinct appearance as fine, golden-brown or gray opacities that are almost always bilateral.